There are a few “seed items” in the store that drive additional sales because of key concept ‘this is often bought with that’. These items are often found together in customer baskets and orders. Smart retailers will put these items as far away as possible, so that you have to walk through more aisles to get from one item to the other, in hope that you will buy more along the way.
I came in to buy milk and I am walking out with 10 things in my basket. The man behind me had only one item in his basket. “How do you do that?” I asked. “It depends on what you come in to buy,” he responded. Every retailer knows that it is very profitable when a customer comes in to buy one item, but ends up with many more in his basket. Understanding the product relationships in the market basket is key to driving up the order size or basket size. Bread and milk is a good example of that. The reverse is also true. For items that are often bought together, if the store does not carry both, they will lose the customer.
Understanding the Customer basket make-up
A retailer typically carries thousands of items. A small convenience store may carry 1,500 items. A grocery store typically carries 15,000. And the super stores like Wal-Mart and Targets carry well over 25,000 SKUs in each store.
The SKU management is a tremendous challenge because the buying pattern is truly a long tail. Retailers know their top sellers; these are easy to identify, but the frequency of buying falls of very sharply. The chart shows an example of one retail store operation over a 3-month period. The store carries 25,000 SKUs, has 100,000 transactions per month. The analysis covers a 3-month period, and shows the distribution and popularity of SKUs based on the frequency of purchase.
Here are some quick stats for insight into the baskets and buying behavior – The most popular SKU has a frequency of 3,435. That means is has been bought in 3,435 baskets. The frequency of the 100th most popular item drops off to 225. That means it is only in 225 baskets over the 3-month period. There are 4,000 SKUs that are bought only once. But the really interesting fact is that 1,800 SKUs are bought together 98% of the times. None of these 1,800 SKUs are top sellers! But when they are purchased, they are very often paired with other items. This intelligence is key to increasing basket size and ensuring the store is carrying the right items. SKU rationalization analyses that view each SKU as an independent item, which is bought in isolation, will result in incorrect merchandising and lost sales.
The basket analysis also showed the low-frequency/high-correlation SKUs. Every retailer knows the challenge with these items. These items sell rarely, they sit on the shelf for along time, and when it is placed in a basket it will only sell if the paired item is available! These are problem SKUs because they are capital hogs and always show up in inventory issues.
Insight into the basket make-up and the product affinities based on buying behavior is key to merchandising and increasing order size. Merchandizing, up selling, cross selling and add-ons based on buying behavior results in increased sales and enhanced customer experience. On the other hand, suggestive selling based on tribal knowledge and ‘he said/she said anecdotes' will result in poor results and loss of customer good will.
Sales Impact Of Increasing order size
The basket size or order size analysis shows the revenue potential of increasing the order size. The chart shows a typical basket size analysis and the upside opportunity of increasing order size. The results from this case study showed that adding one more item to 10% of the baskets can increase sales by 5%.
Manufacturers, distributors and retailers offer thousands of products. There is a significant opportunity to increase sales across all channels with knowledge of product relationships (what items sell together), when and where. It is commonly agreed that B2B purchase behavior is "need based" while a large percentage of B2C sales is emotion based. Hence, in B2B commerce, the product relationships have to be highly accurate to be relevant.
Quick review of definitions:
Frequency – Number of orders that contain this item
Volume – Number of items sold. The volume of an item may be high because one customer bought a lot. However, frequency is better measure of popularity and is not skewed by a one-time large volume sale. In fact, SKU analyses will often remove large volume buyers to reduce this bias.